Volcanoes of Kamchatka

Volcanoes of Kamchatka

Volcanoes of Kamchatka

Kamchatka and Kurils – the only territories in Russia with modern volcanism.

They are included into the Fire circle. There are 30 active and 160 extinct volcanoes on the peninsula.

Klyuchevskoy volcano

The most grandiose and majestic is Klyuchevskoy volcano – one of the biggest in the world. It represents by itself   right cone, situated on the right bank of Kamchatka river. Its slopes are damaged by crackers, streams of lava and the top is covered by ice. The main crater situated on the top and has a diameter of 600 m and 250 m of depth. But eruptions occur very often not in the main crater but in those which situated on the slopes on the volcano.

Tolbachik

In the south-western part of Klyuchevskoye plateau there are two emerged volcanoes – active – Plosky Tolbachik and Ostry Tolbachik. They are so close to each other that sharp cone of one of them just up of the cone of the other one. Ostry Tolbachik has the altitude of 3682 m and the cone – like form. Plosky Tolbachik has the altitude of 3000 m and differs by big top with a narrow caldera full with glacier. In the western part is situated an active crater.

Bezymyanny volcano

Bezymyanny volcano (2882 m) is located in the central part of   Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes. In the crater which appeared because of catastrophic eruption in 1956 lava circle is still growing .

Nowadays Bezymyanny volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Since 1995 it is in constant eruption. Strong culminate eruption events make it one of very attractive volcanoes for many volcanologists in the world.

Avachinsky volcano

To the north from   Avacha bay there situated a group of volcanoes which includes active Avachinsky and Korayksky volcanoes. Together with extinct Kozelsky volcano they give a special beauty and exotic view to the environments of Petropavlovsk- Kamchatsky.

The most active in this group is “double” Avachinsky volcano (2741 m). Its original structure is explained by the fact that modern active cone was formed inside another more ancient and strongly destroyed crater which is called Somma. Young crater which is located upper Somma has a diameter about 350 m. In the crater of Avachinsky volcano which before had a form of a bowel with diameter of 400 m and depth of 200 m there is always a very intensive fumarole activity. As a result of eruption of 1991 the crater is stamped with “lava top”.

Vilyuchinsky volcano

On the other side of the Avacha bay you may easily watch Vilyuchinsky volcano from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatky. Its right cone has altitude of 2175 m.

On the northern slope of the cone there is a hole after a destroyed crater. Volcano is distinguished as an extinct one, although there is an evidence about steam and gas discharge and smell of sulfur gases. May be the volcano was “berried” too yearly.

Mutnovsky volcano

Mutnovsky volcano is situated in 70 km southern from Petropavlovsk-Kamchtsky.This volcano together with Gorely, Vilyuchinsky, Asacha volcanoes form a complicated massive with possibly the most powerful fumarole activity, mud fields and pulsing spring on only in Kamchatka but in the world as well. Mutnovsky volcano is represented by four emerged cones one of which – Vostochny- is very young with the top of 2323 m. On the western slope there are two craters which remind number eight. In one of them in 2000 there was an eruption in the result of which near famous crater “Active hole” appeared a young crater on the bottom of which there is a blue lake now. On the bottom and on the walls of an old crater it is possible to gas and steam discharges with sulfur. Above some of them sulfur domes with altitude of 2,5 m and diameter up to 5 m can be observed. Here also mud and water boilers.

Vulkannaya river forms an 80 m waterfall and deep canyon – Opasny.

Mutnovsky volcano represents a number of various volcanic manifestations. Visiting of this place can be compared only   with flight to the valley of Geysers. 

Gorely volcano

Gorely volcano (1829 m) is situated in 80 km to the south from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatky. For ellipse form of the cone sometimes it is called Gorely ridge.

At first sight it is not very interesting but its original inside beauty can be seen if you look into the craters on its top. Gorely represents a ridged massive with ellipse like caldera. Before it was a volcano with diameter   at the bottom about 30 km. Its central part went down and created a caldera of 9x12 km. Craters fell on each other and the cones emerged. The bottom in the caldera is flat and covered with sand, slag and pieces of lava. Each crater on the top of the volcano has its special features and together they create an unforgettable ensemble.
The most interesting of them:

Active – it is a crater with main activity now.
It has a form of funnel of a right form with diameter of 250 m and depth of 200 m. In active crater there is an acid lake with fumaroles on the bottom.

Near the southern slope of the volcano there is an even site with slag and with width of 150 m. In the eastern part there is a small crater with the name Cylinder.
Further to the east there is the biggest and the most beautiful crater - “Blue lake”. The bottom is occupied by the lake of blue color with floating glaciers.

Crater “Bowel” occupies the top of a small right cone with diameter about 200 m. Before on the bottom there was a shallow lake with the water of a violet color. Now the bottom is covered with slag and snow.

Karymsky volcano

Karymsky volcano (1468 m) is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka and situated in the central part of the Eastern volcanic belt of Kamchatka. It has a complicated   structure and represented by an ancient caldera and a young cone. The diameter of a cone is 5 km. The cone is finished with a central crater.

Before eruption of 1996 the absolute altitude of a young cone was 1546 m.

Eruptions of Karymsky volcano are accompanied by outbursts, ash and volcanic bombs from the central crater.

At the bottom of   Karymsky volcano   on the south there situated Karymskoye l;ake. It occupies the central part of caldera of a more ancient volcano Academy of Science. Not long ago (in 1996) the eruption was from two explosive centers which are on the distance 6 km from each other. The lake really boiled and all living creatures in it died. As a result of it it turned from fresh lake into the biggest in the world place with acid water.

Ksudach volcano

Ksudach volcano (1080) is situated on the south of Kamchatka, by its structure   

referred to shield-shaped type. Diameter at the bottom is about 35 km, slopes are low. Upper part is occupied by huge caldera of oval form 7x9 km, which appeared as a result of strong eruptions.

From the top there created very picturesque panorama: a unique caldera with sharp rocky slopes with different color of rocks - dark, red, yellow-light.

The bottom has a two-stepped structure and divided by two parts and occupied by lakes. On the border between them there situated Lava dome and Paryaschiy massive. All eastern part of caldera occupy two lakes - Klyuchevoye and Shtyubel .Klyuchevoe has an oval form of 4x2 km. From this lake Teplaya river flows which creates a waterfall of 10 m high in 1 km from the lake.

Near the bottom of Paryaschiy massive on the narrow w sand shore o f a lake there are Shtyubelevaskiye hot springs. Discharge of water of 70 degrees C stretches along the shore on 250 km.
Ksudach is one of the most exotic objects in Kamchatka. It is announced as a monument of nature of landscape- geological character.
Black-hatted marmot, long-tailed gopher and other animals live as in Koryak upland and also in other tundra places of the peninsula.

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